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中走丝断丝原因

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中走丝断丝原因

发布日期:2016-04-21 00:00 来源:http://lvzhouhai.cn 点击:

1,钼丝(si)钼丝(si)的松紧程度

如果钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)安装太松,则钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)抖动(dong)厉害 ,不(bu)仅(jin)会造(zao)成断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si),而且由于(yu)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)的(de)抖动(dong)直接影响工件表面(mian)粗(cu)糙度(du)。但钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)也不(bu)能安装 得太紧(jin)(jin),太紧(jin)(jin)内应(ying)力(li)增大,也会造(zao)成断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si),因此钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在切割过程中(zhong),其松紧(jin)(jin)程度(du)要适(shi)当 ,新安装的(de)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si),要先紧(jin)(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)再加(jia)工,紧(jin)(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)时用力(li)不(bu)要太大。钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在加(jia)工一段时间后,由 于(yu)自身的(de)拉(la)伸而变松。当伸长量(liang)较(jiao)大时,会加(jia)剧钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)振动(dong)或(huo)出现钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在贮丝(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)上重(zhong)叠(die)。 使走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)不(bu)稳(wen)而引起断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)。应(ying)经常(chang)检查钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)的(de)松紧(jin)(jin)程度(du),如果存在松弛现象,要及时拉(la)紧(jin)(jin) 。

钼丝(si)安装。钼丝(si)要按(an)规(gui)定(ding)的(de)走向(xiang)绕(rao)在(zai)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)筒(tong)上,同时固(gu)定(ding)两端(duan)。绕(rao)丝(si)时,一般贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si) 筒(tong)两端(duan)各留10mm,中间绕(rao)满(man)不(bu)重叠,宽度不(bu)少于贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)筒(tong)长度的(de)一半,以免电机(ji)换向(xiang)频繁 而使机(ji)件加速损坏,也防止钼丝(si)频繁参与切割而断(duan)丝(si)。

机床上钼丝(si)(si)引(yin)出处有挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang),挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang)是(shi)由两根红宝石制(zhi)成的(de)导向立柱,挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang)不像 导轮那样作滚动运动,他们直(zhi)接(jie)与钼丝(si)(si)接(jie)触,作滑动摩(mo)擦。因(yin)此磨(mo)损很(hen)快,使(shi)用不久柱 体与钼丝(si)(si)接(jie)触的(de)地方就(jiu)会(hui)形成深沟,必须及时(shi)检查并进行翻转和更换(huan),否则(ze)会(hui)出现叠丝(si)(si) 断丝(si)(si)。

2,运丝机(ji)构

中走丝(si)(si)(si)(si)线切割机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构(gou)(gou)主要(yao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)由贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、线架和导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)组成。当(dang)运(yun)(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)下(xia)(xia)降时 (主要(yao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)传动(dong)(dong)轴(zhou)承),会引起(qi)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)径(jing)向(xiang)跳动(dong)(dong)和轴(zhou)向(xiang)窜(cuan)动(dong)(dong)。贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)径(jing)向(xiang)跳动(dong)(dong)会使(shi)电 极丝(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)张力减小,造成丝(si)(si)(si)(si)松,严重时会使(shi)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)从(cong)导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)槽(cao)(cao)中脱出拉断(duan)(duan)。贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)向(xiang)窜(cuan)动(dong)(dong) 会使(shi)排丝(si)(si)(si)(si)不(bu)匀,产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)叠丝(si)(si)(si)(si)现象(xiang)。贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)和轴(zhou)承等零件常因(yin)磨(mo)损(sun)而(er)(er)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)间(jian)(jian)隙,也容易(yi) 引起(qi)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)抖动(dong)(dong)而(er)(er)断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si),因(yin)此必须及(ji)时更换(huan)(huan)磨(mo)损(sun)的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)和轴(zhou)承等零件。贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)换(huan)(huan)向(xiang)时,如没(mei)有 切断(duan)(duan)高频电源,会导(dao)(dao)致钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)在短时间(jian)(jian)内温度(du)过高而(er)(er)烧断(duan)(duan)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si),因(yin)此必须检查(cha)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou)端 的(de)(de)(de)行程(cheng)开关是(shi)(shi)(shi)否失灵(ling)。要(yao)保持(chi)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)转动(dong)(dong)灵(ling)活(huo),否则(ze)在往返运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)时会引起(qi)运(yun)(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)系 统振(zhen)动(dong)(dong)而(er)(er)断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)。绕(rao)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)后(hou)空载走丝(si)(si)(si)(si)检验(yan)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)是(shi)(shi)(shi)否抖动(dong)(dong),若(ruo)发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)抖动(dong)(dong)要(yao)分析原(yuan)因(yin)。贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou) 端的(de)(de)(de)限位(wei)(wei)挡块(kuai)(kuai)必须调整好,避免贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)冲(chong)出限位(wei)(wei)行程(cheng)而(er)(er)断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)。挡丝(si)(si)(si)(si)装置中挡块(kuai)(kuai)与快速运(yun)(yun)(yun) 动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)接(jie)触、摩擦(ca),易(yi)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)沟槽(cao)(cao)并(bing)造成夹丝(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan)(duan),因(yin)此也需及(ji)时更换(huan)(huan)。导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)轴(zhou)承的(de)(de)(de)磨(mo) 损(sun)将(jiang)直接(jie)影响导(dao)(dao)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)精(jing)度(du),此外(wai),当(dang)导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)的(de)(de)(de)v型(xing)槽(cao)(cao)、宝石(shi)限位(wei)(wei)块(kuai)(kuai)、导(dao)(dao)电块(kuai)(kuai)磨(mo)损(sun)后(hou)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)沟槽(cao)(cao) ,也会使(shi)电极丝(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)摩擦(ca)力过大,易(yi)将(jiang)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan)(duan)。这(zhei)种(zhong)现象(xiang)一(yi)般发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)在机(ji)床使(shi)用时间(jian)(jian)较(jiao)长 、加(jia)工工件较(jiao)厚、运(yun)(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构(gou)(gou)不(bu)易(yi)清理(li)的(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia)(xia)。因(yin)此在机(ji)床使(shi)用中应定期(qi)检查(cha)运(yun)(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构(gou)(gou) 的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du),及(ji)时更换(huan)(huan)易(yi)磨(mo)损(sun)件。

3,工(gong)件

工(gong)件材(cai)(cai)料:对不经锻打、不淬火材(cai)(cai)料,在(zai)线切(qie)(qie)割加工(gong)前最好(hao)采用(yong)低温(wen)回火消除内(nei)应 力(li),因为(wei)如果工(gong)件的(de)内(nei)应力(li)没有得到(dao)消除,在(zai)切(qie)(qie)割时,有的(de)工(gong)件会(hui)开裂,把钼丝(si)碰断; 有的(de)会(hui)使(shi)间隙变形,把钼丝(si)夹断或弹断。如淬火后t8钢在(zai)线切(qie)(qie)割加工(gong)中及(ji)(ji)易引起断丝(si)尽 量少(shao)用(yong)。切(qie)(qie)割厚铝材(cai)(cai)料时,由于排屑困难(nan),导电(dian)块磨损较大,注意及(ji)(ji)时更换(huan)。

工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)装夹(jia):虽然线切割(ge)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)受力极小,但仍需牢(lao)固夹(jia)紧工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),防止加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) 过程(cheng)中(zhong)因工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)位置变(bian)(bian)动造成(cheng)断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝。同时要(yao)避免由于(yu)(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)自重和工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)材料(liao)的(de)(de)弹性变(bian)(bian)形造 成(cheng)的(de)(de)断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝。在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)厚重工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)时,可在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)快要(yao)结(jie)束时,用(yong)磁铁吸住将(jiang)要(yao)下(xia)落的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),或(huo) 者人工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)保护(hu)下(xia)落的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),使(shi)其平行缓慢下(xia)落从而防止断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝。 4电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu)选择不当也 是引(yin)起(qi)断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝的(de)(de)一个重要(yao)原因,所以要(yao)根据工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)厚度(du)选择合理(li)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu),将(jiang)脉冲间隔拉(la)开 一些,有(you)利于(yu)(yu)熔(rong)化金属微粒的(de)(de)排出(chu),同时峰值(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流和空载(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)不宜(yi)过高,否则使(shi)单个脉 冲能(neng)量变(bian)(bian)大(da),切割(ge)速度(du)加(jia)快,容(rong)易产生(sheng)集中(zhong)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和拉(la)弧(hu),引(yin)起(qi)断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝。一般空载(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)为 100v左右。在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)火(huo)花加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是造成(cheng)负极腐蚀损(sun)坏(huai)的(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)因素(su),再加(jia)上间隙不 合适,容(rong)易使(shi)某(mou)一脉冲形成(cheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),只要(yao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)集中(zhong)于(yu)(yu)某(mou)一段,就会引(yin)起(qi)断(duan)(duan)(duan)丝。

根(gen)据工件厚度(du)选择合适(shi)的(de)(de)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi):放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)不(bu)能(neng)太小,否则(ze)容易(yi)产(chan)生短路,也不(bu) 利于冷却和电(dian)(dian)(dian)蚀物的(de)(de)排出;放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)过(guo)大,将影响表(biao)面粗糙(cao)度(du)及加(jia)工速度(du)。当(dang)切割厚度(du) 较(jiao)大的(de)(de)工件时(shi),应尽量(liang)选用大脉宽电(dian)(dian)(dian)流,同时(shi)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)也要(yao)大一点,长而增强排屑效果 ,提高切割的(de)(de)稳定性。


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